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WP4: Upscaling potential of CCUS and CCTS chains and CO2 network

Leader: ETH-SPL

Participants: ETH-SPL, ETH-RRE, ETH-EPSE, ETH-sus.lab, Neustark, SBB Cargo, VBSA, Casale, ERZ, Jura Cement, Lonza, Arxada, scienceindustries, Sulzer Chemtech, Carbfix, Northern Lights

The objectives of this work package are:

  • Investigate the techno-economic, environmental, and reliability performance of (i) early mover CCUS and CCTS chains with foreseen implementation in the near-term (e.g., before 2030), and (ii) of a Swiss CO2 network interconnected to an EU-wide shared infrastructure as long-term solution.
  • Develop scenario-based roadmaps of Swiss CCUS and CCTS infrastructure rollout over time compatible with Swiss climate and energy goals and industry roadmaps.
  • Assess optimal integration options for post-combustion CO2 capture technology in Waste to Energy (WtE) and cement plants with reference to specific Swiss emitters and generalization to other plants.
  • Explore how to build viable business models that support the implementation of CCTS and CCUS technologies for the WtE, cement, and chemical and pharma sectors.

The overall purpose of this WP is to assess the upscaling potential of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and carbon capture, transport and storage (CCTS) chains in the near term as well as that of a CO2 network connecting Swiss emission sites to national and international storage sites in the long term. In the following, CO2 supply chains that involve CO2 capture and transport abroad for geological storage are referred to as CCTS, while CO2 supply chains that involve CO2 capture and usage and storage in concrete via mineralization are referred to as CCUS.
First, we will focus on the analysis of few Swiss point-source emitters from the WtE, cement and biogas sectors (e.g., KVA Linth, ERZ plant in Hagenholz, Jura cement plant in Wildegg) that may deploy CCUS and CCTS as an emission mitigation solution in the near-term, e.g., before 2030. This work will consider the overall CO2 supply chain with CO2 capture and liquefaction at the emitter’s site, transport, and storage in concrete (domestic solution) or in a geological reservoir abroad. Because of the near-time horizon, it is expected that these supply chains will mostly rely on CO2 transport by truck and train.
In a next step, the development and optimal integrated design of a CO2 network interconnected to a pan-European shared infrastructure will be investigated as a long-term emissions mitigation solution. The analysis will be extended to other sectors, i.e., chemical, pharma, and life sciences sectors.
Such a network will serve the Swiss point-source emitters and will include Direct Air Capture (DAC) units, whose optimal location with respect to operational CO2 storage hubs abroad will be investigated. Finally, the optimal integration of post-combustion CO2 capture with WtE and cement plants will be evaluated with reference to the Jura Cement plant in Wildegg (Aargau) and the ERZ WtE plant in Hagenholz (Zürich), and guidelines will be provided to generalize the outcomes of this analysis to other Swiss emitters from these sectors.


Interest and expectations of industrial partners

Entsorgung Recycling Zürich

“The city of Zürich is targeting a net-zero strategy for 2040. The CO2 emission of the Wasteto-Energy plant in Hagenholz is the biggest single source emission in the city. The goal of ERZ is to develop the optimal waste incineration plant for the future. Today the legal boundary conditions for the waste incineration plants are not clear with respect to the CO2 emissions. This project will help us understand how the CO2 capture and the district heating can be optimally combined. The urgency for this work is driven by the timeline. The legal boundary conditions, the transport of CO2 and also the optimal design for carbon capture for a WtE plant have to be clear, before any implementations can be started. As soon as the project can be launched it takes at least 6-10 years to have the adequate unit in operation.”

Jura Cement

“In agreement with the “Energieperspektiven 2050” and the long-term climate strategy published by the Swiss government in January 2021, we believe CCS will be needed in the Swiss cement industry to deal with non-avoidable emissions. Being subject to the European Emission Trading System and with rising carbon prices, the cement industry faces growing CO2 costs and is therefore under pressure to mitigate CO2 emissions as fast as possible. The long lead time to plan and implement CCS across the full value chain, including the regulatory framework, necessitates immediate action. In sum, from the perspective of a cement producer there is an urgency to develop a CCS infrastructure in Switzerland. The DemoUpCARMA study is a first step in this direction and it is coming at the right time.”


While defining our position on climate protection and looking into the statistics, we have realized that the avoidance of emissions from the thermal recovery of special waste from production processes and from external sources will be the biggest challenge for our industries in achieving the net-zero CO2-emissions goal by 2050. On the long term, a combination of several technologies and approaches will enable our industries to achieve considerable emission reductions. Among these technologies, the avoidance and regeneration of waste but also post-combustion CO2-capture will play a role. This is why the chemical, pharma and life science industries are highly interested in the DemoUpCARMA project, which will demonstrate CCUS and CCTS value chains and investigate their upscaling. In addition, this project will help us assess the regulatory frameworks relevant for CCUS/CCTS technologies, and understand effective and competitive business models for the future implementation of these technologies by our industries.


Task 1:
Techno-economic, environmental and reliability performance of early mover CCUS and CCTS chains with foreseen implementation in the near-term (e.g., before 2030).
(ETH-RRE1, all WP partners) (Month 1-18)
Task 2:
Investigating techno-economic, environmental and reliability performance of a Swiss CO2 network interconnected to a EU-wide shared CO2 infrastructure as long-term solution.
(ETH-SPL, all WP partners) (Month 1-24)
Task 3:
Integration of post-combustion CO2 capture with Waste to Energy (WtE) and cement plants.
(Casale, ETH-SPL, ERZ, Jura Cement, Sulzer Chemtech) (Month 1-24)
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